“To the Italian government: the fact that you have agreed and the fact that you felt it necessary to send us a joint communication on this agreement clearly shows that you intend to exert pressure, which we believe immediately raises an earlier question. This issue, which requires preliminary consideration, must therefore be referred to the League of Nations. The letters exchanged on 7 May 1929 reserved for England and Egypt “total freedom in all negotiations” of an agreement on Sudan and similar issues. Egyptian statesmen can therefore reopen the issue of Nile water and will be able to discuss it without the sworn enemy of hunger staring at them. It is therefore clear that, while the world as a whole will welcome the state art that assured Fallah, Egypt, that the Nile would remain above all its river and that this flow would be primarily intended to make its fields productive, colonization is by no means a precedent for Colorado or other problems. Political considerations have forced Sudan to subordinate its interests to those of Egypt. The Nile water agreement did not seal in more detail the great legal problem that matters so much to irrigation experts in the Western world. But Egypt`s difficulties are overcome, at least for the time being. And this, not the creation of a global precedent, was the task facing London and Cairo. Negotiations as part of a basin-wide agreement. At present, it would be the framework cooperation agreement if Egypt and Sudan adhere to it. To obtain the support of Cairo and Khartoum, Ethiopia must admit that the filling of the Renaissance dam in Great Ethiopia and the operation of all dams are managed by a new commission of the Nile Basin provided for by the agreement. In his speech to the House of Commons on July 10, 1924, then Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald went so far as to say, “The Egyptian farmer can be entirely satisfied that Sudan`s independence does not mean, because of the agreement we are prepared to conclude, that he will benefit from one less pinch of water than if he had it and if he had it himself.” Letters exchanged on May 7, 1929 must be interpreted within the meaning of this advertisement.
You are certainly making a net profit for Egypt. They do so in the teeth of an unbiased neutral expert who did not state that Egypt had no right or maintenance, equity or legal or justified uses to claim as its own “untited” water, which might be necessary to give its 1,900,000 hectares of unfunded fertility. It should be recalled that on 28 February 1922, Great Britain recognized Egypt as an independent sovereign state, with the caveat that certain matters “should remain at the discretion of Her Majesty`s Government until it may be possible, through free discussion and friendly agreements between both parties, to conclude agreements on this subject between Her Majesty`s Government and the Egyptian Government.” Sudan — the “black country,” a vast region in southern Egypt, between the 22nd and fifth parallels — was the subject of the fourth of these reservations. This area had been recaptured jointly by Great Britain and Egypt in the campaigns of 1896-8.